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TOPIC: Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels

Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels 7 years 3 months ago #4397

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This will begin with a sample of some Shake-Speare and Bacon parallels:

Macbeth or Bacon?
"The Spanish have a proverb, 'To-morrow, tomorrow; and when to-morrow comes, to-morrow.." Bacon
"...life is but the shadow of death..." Bacon
"It is nothing else but words, which rather sound than signify anything." Bacon

"Be so true to thyself as thou be not false to others." Essay of Wisdom - Bacon [Polonius, is that you?]

"Polonius. What do you read, my lord?
Hamlet. Words, words, words.
Polonius. What is the matter, my lord?"

"Here, then, is the first distemper of learning, when men study words and not matter." Advancement of Learning - Bacon

"Though this be madness, yet there is method in it." Hamlet - Shakespeare
"They were only taking pains to show a kind of method and discretion in their madness" Novum Organum - Bacon

" From the tables Of my memory I'll wipe away all saws of books." Hamlet
"Tables of the mind differ from the common tables...you will scarcely wipe out the former records unless you shall have inscribed the new." Bacon

"I saw him run after a gilden butterfly; and when he caught it he let it go again, and after it again, and over and over he comes, and up again, catch'd it again..."
Coriolanus
"...and if her Majesty will not take me, it may be selling by parcels will be more gainful. For to be, as I have told you, a child following a bird, which when he is nearest flieth away and lighteth a little before, and then the child after it again, and so on ad infinitum...." Letter to Fulke Greville - Bacon

"Love me little love me long." (Bacon's notebook--Promus, 959)
"Love moderately: long love doth so." Romeo And Juliet, 2.6.14

"Assume a virtue if you have it not." Hamlet - Shakespeare
"Whatever a want a man hath, he must see that he pretend the virtue that shadoweth it." Advancement of Learning - Bacon

"There's such divinity doth hedge a king
That treason dares not look on." Hamlet
"God hath implanted such a majesty in the face of a prince that no private man dare approach the person of his sovereign with a traitorous intent." - Bacon

"A Fools Bolt is soon shot." K.Henry V,iii,7
"A fools bolt is soon shot" - Bacon

"And thus the native hue of resolution is sickled o'er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pith and moment with this regard their currents turn awry,
And lose the name of action." Hamlet
"So the unresolved man executes nothing." Bacon

"To be once in doubt is once to be resolved." Othello
"Not to resolve is to resolve." Bacon

:...Oft breaking down the pales and forts of reason," Hamlet
"Thus is fortitude the marshal of thoughts, the armour of the will, and the fort of Reason." Bacon
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Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels 7 years 3 months ago #4402

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Here are a few other Bacon/Shake-speare parallels:

"Open thy gates of mercy, gracious God!" 3 Henry VI, 1.4.177
"The gates of mercy shall be all shut up" Henry V, 3.3.10

"We wished him not to shut the gate of your Majesty's mercy against himself by being obdurate any longer." Bacon in Letter to King James

Comment: "Gates of mercy" is not in the Bible, and editors make no mention of it being found elsewhere in the Elizabethan period.

"I was a packhorse in his great affairs" Richard III, 1.3.122

"I have laboured like a packhorse in your business" Bacon's Letter to Murray, c. 1614

"Oh thee, the troubler of the world's peace." Richard III, 1.3.1221

"Great conquerors and troublers of the world." Bacon in his Natural history

"That gigantic state of mind which possesseth the troublers of the world...
who would have all men happy or unhappy as they were friends or enemies, and
would give form to the world according to their own humours." Bacon in The Advancement of Learning

"The Frency King troubles the Christian world." Bacon in History of Henry VII

Comment: J.M. Robertson gives 13 examples of "troublers" of Israel or of this or that, but none of "troublers" of the "world". Such small differences in working may seem insignificant but they can be a fingerprint.
"Away, thou rag, thou quantity, thou remnant" The Taming of the Shrew 4.3.112

"He thought it [an outbreak of force] but a rag or remnant of Bosworth field." Bacon in History of Henry VII

Comment: No one claims to have found the collocation of "rag" and "remnant" anywhere else.

Additionally, from Twelfth Night:
Sir Toby says: "Taunt him with the license of ink: if thou thou'st him thrice, it shall not be amiss."

This could easily be a reference to a speech of Edward Coke that he made at the trial of Sir Walter Raleigh, when Coke said: "Thou Viper, for I thou thee, thou Traitor!"

Edward Coke was a long time enemy at court of Francis Bacon, so this could be one of Bacon's many jests at Coke.

This is just a sample of many of the parallels between Shakes-Speare and Bacon. More will come later.
Last Edit: 7 years 3 months ago by Unfoldyourself.
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Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels 7 years 3 months ago #4406

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Did Francis Bacon write the dedications in the long poems Venus and Adonis, and The Rape of Lucrece? Some evidence supports this possibility.

Here are just a few points in his favor. Here's the dedication to The Rape of Lucrece:

To the Right Honourable
Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton
and Baron of Titchfield

The love I dedicate to your Lordship is without end; whereof this pamphlet
without beginning is but a superfluous moiety. The warrant I have of your
Honourable disposition, not the worth of my untutored lines, makes it
assured of acceptance. What I have done is yours, what I have to do is
yours, being part in all I have devoted yours. Were my worth greater, my
duty would show greater; meantime, as it is, it is bound to your lordship,
to whom I wish long life still lengthened with all happiness.
Your Lordship's in all duty,
William Shakespeare

According to Cockburn (1998) this dedication and the one for Venus and Adonis are in Bacon's style. Both are sophisticated, brilliant, pithy. Most Elizabethan prose dedications are longer, but Bacon liked to keep his short, except when offered to the King. Both Dedications display Bacon's obsession with antithesis. In the dedication to Venus and Adonis is the phrase "so strong a prop to support so weak a burden". In the one for The Rape of Lucrece there is "The love I dedicate to your Lordship is without end; whereof this pamphlet without beginning . . ."

There is also a parallel expression in the Lucrece dedication that Bacon also uses. This is "honourable disposition". In two letters that he used this expression he was asking for favors, just as is the purpose of the Shake-speare dedications. In a letter of 1593 to Robert Cecil, Bacon says "I know you bear that honourable disposition as it will rather give you apprehension to deal more effectively for me than otherwise." And in a letter of 1597 to Lord Keeper Egerton he starts a letter saying "May it please your honourable good Lordship," and then speaks of "of your Lordship's honourable disposition both generally and to me." Thus in both letters he uses "honourable disposition" to mean "favourable disposition". He uses these two words "honourable" and "disposition" in many letters in which he is asking for some type of favor.

Cockburn asks "Does the expression "honourable disposition" appear elsewhere in Elizabethan literature? And at the same time to mean "favourable disposition"?

Since Bacon was a commoner at the time of the two poems it was appropriate for him to address the Earl of Southampton asking for patronage, since Bacon was poor. Also, Southampton had been brought up by Bacon's aunt Mildred and the Earl had just come into a large inheritance.
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Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels 7 years 3 months ago #4410

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Some more parallels that may be unique to Bacon and Shake-Speare:

[of bad tidings] They are harsh and untunable and bad
The Two Gentlemen of Verona 3.1.208

It is the lark that sins so out of tune,
Straining harsh discords and unpleasing sharps.
Romeo And Juliet 3.5.27-8

Like sweet bells jangled out of tune and harsh
Hamlet 3.1.160

then murder's out of tune
And sweet revenge grows harsh
Othello 5.2.116-7

Now here are quotations from Bacon's works:

"They must needs, in respect of the opinions of the time, seem harsh and out of tune" [Latin: duras et absonas].
Novum Organum

"A lute-string, if it be merely unequal in its parts, giveth a harsh and untunable sound."
Natural History

"The government of the world and the more secret judgment of God sound somewhat harsh and untunable."
De Augmentis

Harsh and untunable
The Wisdom of the Ancients

Cockburn's comment: For the Hamlet text Q2 has "jangled out of time". The Arden editor in a long note says "Either time or tune must be a minim error, but as both make excellent sense we cannot be certain which".

But the Bacon texts (of which the editor makes no mention) suggest, as do the other Shake-Speare texts, that Shake-Speare wrote "out of tune". The collocation of "harsh" and "untunable" (or "out of tune") seems not to have been found elsewhere, and so looks like a Bacon/Shake-Speare idiosyncrasy.
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Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels 7 years 3 months ago #4417

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Besides there being what seems like a mountain of evidence connecting Bacon to the Shakespeare plays, their sources, and the name of William Shakespeare itself, Baconians also have a great number of potentially UNIQUE parallels in language and thought may be enough to prove common authorship. This post and its companion (which is extra long) constitute a pair. The companion 'Tempest' post is to be found in the 'Some Baconian Evidence' topic on the first page.

In The Tempest 1.2.353-5 we have:

"Abhorred slave
Which any print of goodness wilt not take,
Being capable of all ill!"

On "any print of goodness" the Arden editor comments: "Tannenbaum would read point, but the metaphor seems to be from printing". They would hardly have had any doubt about it if they had known these Bacon parallels:

"Veritas [truth] and Bonitas [goodness] differ but as the seal and the print; for truth prints goodness."
Bacon in The Advancement of Learning

"This Janus of imagination hath differing faces: for the face towards Reason hath the print of Truth, but the face towards Reason hath the print of Good."
Bacon's The Advancement of Learning

"The inclination to goodness is imprinted deeply in human nature."
Bacon's Essay on Goodness

"Let it be . . . that, living or dying, the print of the goodness of King James may be in my heart."
Bacon's Letter to King James in 1624

Chronologically Shake-Speare could have borrowed from the Advancement texts, but Bacon could not have borrowed from the published play. Did any other Elizabethan speak of the "print" of goodness?
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Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels 7 years 3 months ago #4424

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Here is a Bacon/Shakespeare parallel in I Henry VI lines 55-58

Bedford: A far more glorious star thy soul will make
than Julius Caesar or bright ---
Enter a messenger
Messenger: My honourable lords, health to you all!
Sad tidings bring I to you out of France.

Neither my Folger nor Signet Classics editions say anything about what might come after the word 'bright'.

Some are some relevant Bacon quotes:

"Both in persons and in times there hath been a meeting and concurrence in Learning and Arms, flourishing and excelling in the same men and the same ages. For, as for men, there cannot be a better nor the like instance, as of that pair, Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar the Dictator; whereof the one was Aristotle's scholar in philosophy, and the other was Cicero's rival in eloquence."
The Advancement of Learning

"u]Alexander[/u gave him [Aristotle] to understand that himself esteemed it more to excel other men in learning and knowledge than in power and empire. And what use he u]Alexander[/u had of learning doth appear, or rather shine, in all his speeches and answers, being full of science and use of science, and that in all variety . . . I am as willing to flatter, if they will so cal it, an Alexander or a Caesar or an Antonimus that are dead many hundred years since, as any that now liveth: for it is the displaying of the glory of learning in sovereignty that I propound to myself, and not an humour of declaiming in any man's praises. . . there are prints and footsteps of learning in those few speeches which are reported of this prince: the admiration of whom, when I consider him not as Alexander the Great, but as Aristotle's scholar, hath carried me too far. As for Julius Caesar, the excellency of his learning needeth not to be argued."
The Advancement of Learning

"It is not possible to have the true pictures or statues of Cyrus, Alexander, Caesar . . . But the images of men's wits and knowledges remain in books, exempted from the wrong time."
The Advancement of Learning

"In which point I promise to myself a like future to that of Alexander the Great. [For it was said of Alexander that he] had done no more than to take courage to despise vain apprehensions. And a like judgment I suppose may be passed on myself in future ages."
Novum Organum

"Alexander did not think his fame so engraven in his conquests but that he thought it further shined in the buildings of Alexandria."
Speech at Gray's Inn Revels

Here is Cockburn's analysis and comment on what it likely said, based on Bacon's known writings:

The reader sees that in the Shake-Speare text the second line ends with a blank. The editors of William Shakespeare A Textual Companion opine that "despite numerous conjectures about the intended completion of this sentence, a dramatic interruption is almost certainly intended". But Shake-Speare would hardly have broken a sentence off between an adjective and its noun. The Arden editor and most other scholars make the far more plausible suggestion that Shake-Speare wrote a second name which the compositor could not decipher; a long name with many minims may have baffled him. Names suggested have included Sir Francis Drake, Berenice and Cassiopey. But the Bacon texts almost certainly provide the answer. They show that he greatly admired both Caesar and Alexander. Alexander fits the metre and would have to be prefaced by an adjective to fill the gap before his name since, unlike Julius Caesar, he was not known by any prenomen. Above all, he would be a natural partner for Caesar, and comparison for Henry V. "Bright" rather than 'great' is an unexpected adjective for Alexander and has put editors off the scent, but Bacon's shine (used twice) explains it - he thought Alexander bright by reason of his intellectual qualities. As for flattering Caesar and Alexander, that is exactly what Shake-Speare does in L.56, if Alexander is the missing name."
"It is not possible to have the true pictures or statues of Cyrus, Alexander, Caesar . . . But the images of men's wits and knowledges remain in books, exempted from the wrong time."
The Advancement of Learning

Here Bacon is saying that a person's mind that remains in their books is a truer picture of them than painting or statue. Compare this idea to the First Folio 'To the Reader' where the last 4 lines say:
His face; the Print would then surpasse
All, that was ever writ in brasse.
But, since he cannot, Reader, looke
Not on his Picture, but his Books.

Finally, see how this corresponds to :

"And those who have true skill in the Works of the Lord Verulam[Bacon], like great Masters in Painting, can tell by the Design, the Strength, the way of colouring, whether he was the author of this or the other Piece, though his Name be not to it."
Archbishop Tenison, in his Baconiana, 1679
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Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels 7 years 3 months ago #4430

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A few more parallels:

Lo, as at English feast, so I regreet
The daintiest last to make the end most sweet.
Richard II 1.3.67-8

Bacon: Let not this Parliament end like a Dutch feast, in salt meats, but like an English feast in sweet meats.
A 1604 speech

Comment: It was the practice for English feasts, unlike Dutch feasts, to end with confectionary and fruit. Shake-Speare evidently had this distinction in mind, or he would not have specified "English feast".

I, measuring his affections by my own,
Which most are busied when they're most alone.
Romeo And Juliet Q.1

Bacon: His Majesty is never less alone than when he is alone.
Letter to Villiers

Comment: A very similar paradox, probably based on a dictum by Publius Scipio
-See The Tempest 3.1.15 and the Arden footnote where Ferdinand is more refreshed
the more he works while thinking of Miranda

Henry V, 2.2.55-57
How shall we stretch our eye
When capital crimes, chewed, swallowed and digested
Appear before us?

Bacon: Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.
Essay on Studies
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Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels 7 years 3 months ago #4434

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Hamlet - the King's body natural and his body politic

In Hamlet 4.2.24-7, after Hamlet has slain Polonius, this exchange occurs:

Rosencratz: My Lord, you must tell us where the body is and go with us to the King.
Hamlet: The body is with the King, but the King is not with the body.

This cryptic utterance has caused endless puzzlement. At first blush it sounds like a mere nonsense designed to strengthen the impression of Hamlet's madness. But there is far more to it than that, and we may discover what from a Bacon passage. In his speech in a law case in 1608 called "The case of the Post-Nati of Scotland,", which turned on the question whether, when England and Scotland were united, the natives of both kingdoms, born after James I's accession, would be naturalized in both lands. Bacon said of this: "The natural body of the King hath an operation and influence into his body politic, as well as his body politic hath upon his body natural....[Bacon then cited authorities for two propositions: (a) There is in the King not a body natural alone, but a body natural and politic together; (b) Though there be in the King two bodies, and that these two bodies are conjoined, yet they are no means confounded the one by the other].

Regarding Hamlet's line "The body is with the King, but the King is not with the body", the Arden editor (one of the few commentators, it seems, to have understood the line) points out correctly that Hamlet has two meanings. One is: "The body is in the King's Palace, but is it not the King himself who has been killed", But the secondary meaning (based on the Elizabethan political doctrine referred to above by Bacon) treats the body as that of the King, and is: "The body natural is necessarily with the King, but the body politic is not, because he is not the rightful King [having murdered the previous King, his brother]"

The distinction between "body natural" and "body politic" was not invented by Bacon. He learned it through law cases reported in Plowden's Reports. Then in 1603 Bacon suggested for the Crowns of England and Scotland be united in James I under the name of 'Great Britain' as an expression of the perfect union of bodies, politic as well as natural.

Thus the distinction between "body natural" and "body politic" was very much on Bacon's mind around the time when Hamlet Q2 was issued in 1604 (the line is not in Q1, 1603) since he was the King's principal advocate in Parliament of the proposed union of England and Scotland. It seems that the references in the scene Shake-Speare was writing to "body" and "king" made him think of the distinction between the King's body natural and his body politic; and that he then realized that he could use the distinction as the basis of a piece of seeming madness to put into Hamlet's mouth. If ever a legalism "slipped" from Shake-Speare this is it. And no one had more cause than Bacon to have it in the forefront of his mind in 1604. As to Will Shakspere, even if he knew of this fine, abstruse point of constitutional law, it would hardly have engrossed him when writing about Polonius's murder.
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Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels 7 years 3 months ago #4438

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Shake-Speare and Bacon on man being infinite and compounded

First Shake-Speare:
"The brain of this foolish-compounded clay, man, is not able to invent
any thing that intends to laughter more than I invent, or is invented on me;"
2 Henry IV 1.2.5-6

"What a piece of work is man...how infinite in faculties...the beauty of the world, the paragon of animals"
Hamlet 2.2.303-7

"Nor custom stale
Her infinite variety"
Anthony and Cleopatra 2.2.235-6


Now Bacon:
"Infinite variety of behaviour and manners of men"
Letter to Earl of Rutland

"Of all substances which nature hath produced, man's body is the most extremely compounded...[7 lines later]
Man in his mansion, sleep, exercise, passions, hath infinite variations; and it cannot be denied but that the body of man of all other things is the most compounded mass. The soul on the other side is the simplest of substances."
The Advancement of Learning

"In the mass and composition of which man was made, particles taken from the different animals were infused and mixed up with the clay; for it is most true that of all things in the universe man is the most composite."
Wisdom of the Ancients

"The souls of the living are the delight of the world."
Wisdom of the Ancients

Comment: "Our two authors' descriptions are strikingly similar. Compare "infinite variety" / "infinite variety" & "infinite variations"; "beauty of the world" / "delight of the world"; and "compounded" / "compounded". Why does Falstaff say "This foolish-compounded clay, man"?. He could have said simply "This foolish clay, man". Bible passages describe Man as clay, but not as compounded. But Shake-Speare probably introduced "compounded" to vent Bacon's view that of all substances Man's body is the most compounded. (As Bacon in The Advancement of Learning uses "compounded mass" of Man, so Shake-Speare in Hamlet 3.4.49 uses "compounded mass" of Earth.)

And here's another short parallel
Shake-Speare:
"A good wit will make use of anything. I will turn diseases to commodity [advantage]."
2 Henry IV 1.2.249-50

Bacon: "Excellent wits will make sue of every little thing."
Letter to Fulke Greville drafted by Bacon
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Some Baconian Evidence - Parallels 7 years 3 months ago #4443

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More Shakespeare and Bacon parallels:

Shakespeare:
"The strawberry grows underneath the nettle
And wholesome berries thrive and ripen best
Neighbour'd by fruit of baser quality"
Henry V 1.1.60-3

Bacon: "Wheresoever one plant draweth such a particular juice out of the earth as it qualifieth the earth, so as that juice which remaineth is fit for the other plat, there the neighbourhood doth good, because the nourishments are contrary or several; but where two plants draw much the same juice, there the neighbourhood hurteth."
Natural History

Comment: What gives this parallel most of its force is "neighbour'd" / "neighbourhood". To illustrate that these little verbal parallels are significant, I quote two similar statements given by the Arden editor, in neither of which does "neighbour'd" or "neighbourhood" appear: "Strawberry aptly groweth in shadowy places, and rather joyeth under the shadow of other herbs, than by growing alone". "If it happened (as some gardeners say) that those roses and violets are ever the sweeter and more odiferous that grow near under garlic and onions, for so much as they suck and draw all the ill-savours of the ground unto them". There are many different ways of saying the same things.

Shakespeare:
"There is a tide in the affairs of men
Which taken at the flood leads on to fortune...
And we must take the current when it serves,"
Julius Caesar 4.3.219-22

Bacon:
"The tides and currents of received errors"
Reading on the Statute of Uses

"I set down reputation because of the peremptory tides and currents it hath; which if they be not taken in their due time, are seldom recovered, it being extreme hard to play an after game of reputation."
The Advancement of Learning

"The tides of any opportunities... the periods and tides of estates"
Letter to Robert Cecil

Comment: J.M. Robertson (p. 429) gives 11 other instances of tide or current metaphors. The nearest in meaning is the proverb: "The tide tarrieth no man". But Bacon and Shake-Speare spell out the idea more fully, and none of the other instances uses tides and currents in conjunction, as does the Shake-Speare passage and two of the three Bacon passages.

Shakespeare:
"It is a nipping and an eager air."
Hamlet 1.4.2

Bacon: "Whereby the cold becometh more eager."
Natural History

Comment: The O.E.D. cites the Hamlet line as the first recorded instance of "eager" applied to cold; and no further instance till 1854. But we see that Bacon used it in that sense too. He perhaps derived it from the French word "aigre", meaning eager or sharp.

Shakespeare:
"This brave o'erhanging firmament, this majestical roof fretted with golden fire,"
Hamlet 2.2.300-1

Bacon: "[If God had been of human disposition] he would have cast the stars to some pleasant and beautiful works and orders, like the frets in the roofs of houses."
The Advancement of Learning
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